It’s been a strange ‘swarming season’ in my apiary this year. Most of my colonies haven’t tried to swarm, and the ones that have have been rather half-hearted about the whole business. One colony started to make queen cells, then changed their minds and tore them all down. I’ve not seen that before in my own bees.
So far I’ve only had to do swarm control manipulations on four colonies, which is no problem at all now that I have my polynuc method so well-rehearsed that I could do it in my sleep!
Every year as the bees begin swarming preparations, I give thanks to whoever invented the polynuc . . .
Polynucs: possibly the most useful thing you can buy
I started beekeeping just eight years ago but I don’t remember polynucs being a feature of my early learning. Perhaps that’s because many of the books I read as a beginner were written before polynucs came into use.
(If you want to learn about polynucs and polyhives, look online e.g. dave-cushman.net)
At any rate, everything I read advised that you need a spare complete hive for every colony that needs an artificial swarm.
This always worried me, because I didn’t have the cash (or the storage) for so much spare equipment.
Polynucs to the rescue
I needn’t have worried though as I was about to be rescued by a polymer (how poetic!). The polynuc has changed the way I approach swarm control, and many other aspects of my beekeeping.
When a colony starts to produce queen cells for swarming, I just grab an empty polynuc and within 10 minutes the situation is dealt with, with no dramas.
It’s as simple as this:
- Find the queen and put the frame she is on into the polynuc having checked it thoroughly for swarm cells and destroyed them
- Put in two frames of sealed brood that is ready to emerge – check there are no swarm cells on them first (or the bees will swarm just like in a full colony)
- Put in a frame of pollen and stores
- Put in a frame of empty drawn comb if you have one, or a frame of foundation, or just a dummy board
- Shake in a couple of frames of nurse bees from the main colony (to ensure there are enough bees to take care of the queen and brood)
- Close and move the polynuc straight to where you want it to sit (close to the parent colony if you think you may want to reunite, but you can move it further than three feet – just remember that the number of bees will be depleted by the flying bees returning to the parent hive).
That’s the first stage of the swarm control manipulation; you then need to deal with all the swarm cells in the parent colony as per usual. (My advice is to choose one unsealed cell, not two (always a contentious subject!), and don’t forget to do a second knock-down of queen cells 4 days later.)
Why this works to stop swarming immediately:
- The queen has been removed from the main colony, therefore it will not swarm (bees don’t swarm without a queen)
- The polynuc will not swarm either although the queen is there; obviously you need to keep an eye on it because it will grow rapidly and you may well find queen cells in there in a few week’s time if you don’t give it more space.
- Have your equipment clean and ready, on site. I stack mine up and leave it there
- As soon as you see a primed queen cell, go for it! In my experience this immediate action is crucial to success (I learned very early on that knocking down queen cells is not a method of swarm control!)
- It’s essential that no swarm cells go into the polynuc so check everything carefully. It can be a challenge to find every queen cell and I’ve missed queen cells many times . . .
- Ensure that your queens are marked beforehand, it makes everything faster and easier
- Having some spare brood comb is a real asset – you can get your bees to work on this for you during the active season, removing and storing the drawn comb for use when needed.
What to do with the colony in the polynuc
The new nuc establishes itself quickly. Just watch that they don’t run out of food especially during the ‘June gap’.
You may need the nuc if the new queen in the parent colony doesn’t mate successfully – just reunite the two. However very few of the nucs I make up in this way ever get reunited with the parent colony.
I always like to have a half dozen nucs in my apiary because they are just so useful. I use some of them as ‘factories’ to generate all the components that I need for my small-scale apiary such as drawn comb, frames of brood and bees. You can keep them going throughout the season with a bit of delicate management i.e. don’t take too much at any one time. Obviously you have to give them more space to keep them going like this, and I use the handy extensions that you can get.
Try new things in your beekeeping
Once I learned all the things I could do with polynucs, I started trying more and more new things in my beekeeping.
If a strong colony is building up very quickly, you can remove a couple of frames of brood and a frame of stores and pollen to make up a nuc (splitting the colony). Do you have a spare queen cell that is too nice to waste? Make up a three frame nuc and let the bees raise her. Do you have a spare unmated queen that has just emerged? You can try introducing her to a nuc and see if she mates.
It was all these little experiments in my own apiary that gave me the confidence to start queen rearing. Now, I’ve learned to use three frame nucs as mating nucs because I find they work better for me than apideas and are more suitable to my small scale beekeeping.
I have even just bought some supers for polynucs. When these first became available I laughed at the idea. But now that I’ve learned a little more about how polynucs can really be put to work, I am converted!
So for me, a polynuc is the way to go when dealing with swarming colonies and I hope they prove useful for you too.