Manuka honey is unique. It is the only honey I’ve seen with a security tag attached. It’s expensive stuff. Last week in my local supermarket there was a jar for £35, I’ve seen it double that in other places. A hefty price tag for honey that doesn’t even taste that nice. Manuka honey is lucrative and devious people have been flooding the market with fake manuka honey;
This week I was listening to the recent episode of the Kiwi Mana Buzz, if you don’t listen to them you really should. Margret & Gary covered a dispute between a manuka trade association in New Zealand and the Cornwall based Tregothnan estate who sell manuka produced by the bees on their estates from manuka trees planted over one hundred years ago.
However; compared to the problems of fake manuka the debate if Tregothnan should label its honey manuka is a minor dispute.
In 2013 Food Standards Agency reported that shops in the UK sold over 1800 tons of manuka honey. Surprising given that only 1700 tons of it was exported from New Zealand and Australia. The FSA estimated over 10,000 tons were sold Worldwide.
Manuka honey, what?
Manuka honey is produced from the the manuka tree, a native of New Zealand and parts of Australia. Before the 1980s it wasn’t as popular as more delicately flavored honeys. In 1982 Dr. Paul Molan identified the antibacterial properties of manuka honey. Science confirmed the long traditional of honey being used to treat wounds and infections was based on fact.
Science behind them, manuka honey producers successfully marketed their product to the health food industry; attracting a high premium. Manuka isn’t unique in having these properties. Honey from Scotland, Wales and other parts of the World all have research replicating the manuka effect. Good honey is simply good for you.
Yes, people even fake honey.
Manuka isn’t the only type of honey to fall victim to honey fraudsters. Honey is one of the World’s most counterfeited food products. In 2011 the Food Safety News published a study showing that three quarters of honey sold in the USA had all it’s pollen filtered out. This is done so the pollen cannot be used to identify where the honey comes from. You could well be eating honey from countries treating their hives with antibiotics or toxic chemicals banned in Europe and the USA. Honey fraudsters also routinely mix honey with corn syrup to increase its volume.
So how do you avoid buying fake honey? Buying from established specialist retailers is a great way reduce the risk. But, I would strongly suggest buying local honey from your local beekeepers. Local honey is surprisingly easy to find. You often find beekeepers selling their honey at food fairs and markets. It is slightly more expensive than the honey you see on supermarket shelves but still a lot cheaper than manuka – why not buy 100% local honey?
2016 was a rollercoaster for me and my beekeeping, thanks mainly to the unreliable weather, a shortage of queens, and general disorganisation on my part (when will I learn that winter should be used for cleaning equipment, making up frames etc.?!).
Lesson one: get my act together, plan properly and use winter to prepare equipment for the coming season!
My key goal for the year was to increase the number of colonies to produce more honey for the land owner I work for.
Things didn’t start well as I broke my ankle and by April it was still in plaster and I was on crutches. Instead of accepting the limitations of this I tried to carry on regardless, on one occasion causing complete mayhem in my apiary by dropping a full brood box. Luckily no damage was done (except to my nerves), and my beekeeping friends stepped in to help get things back on track by the end of April.
Lesson two: fellow beekeepers are always ready to lend a hand, so ask for help!
My apiary is colder than other areas in South London so my bees are always a couple of weeks behind. After a burst of late March sunshine and pollen, the bees were preparing to swarm. I have my swarm prevention and control process pretty much worked out thanks to years of trial and error. But last year’s spring had a sting in its tail with weeks of cool, wet, miserable weather meaning that the emerging queens mated poorly (some turning into drone layers all too quickly) and others simply went stale.
While I had some over-wintered nucs, I simply didn’t have enough mated and laying queens banked to replace all the failing/poorly mated queens. I had fall back on uniting some colonies. So my goal to expand my apiary wasn’t unfolding as planned!
Lesson three: rear enough queens to ensure that young, mated and laying queens are always to hand.
In an act of desperation, I decided to buy in some nucs with extensions. Now I am not saying that there is anything wrong with buying nucs from a reputable source. And I used a reputable source. But I failed to factor in that I had been selecting my bees for years and that they were mostly good tempered, productive, prolific colonies that I knew and (mostly!) loved. Unfortunately, I didn’t know the bees that I brought in and found that they weren’t exactly friendly and seemed to only produce bees. The new colonies got bigger and bigger but there was no honey to harvest, and their temperament got worse. In the end a passer-by was stung and I had to remove them. I should have simply taken my best colony and split it into six as advised by other beekeepers.
Lesson four: increase stocks by using your own well-tempered bees or bees whose traits are known to you.
All was not lost, I managed to make up some nucs from my best colonies. But I learned the hard way that I was not going to achieve an increase without an organised queen rearing programme to support it. One for 2017 – watch this space!
The main flow when it began wasn’t as strong as the previous year because local forage was affected by the long wet spring. However I did harvest almost as much honey as the previous year so at least that was something.
Varroa populations were high at the end of summer. I often do shook swarms in spring to help manage varroa but I couldn’t in 2016 as the weather was so rubbish and not ideal for drawing new comb. In September I treated some colonies with Apiguard and some with MAQS (depending on the nature of the colony – small ones that needed a lot of feeding got MAQS). In recent years I have been finding that varroa can then build up again going into December. I treated all colonies with Apibioxil trickle method (in 1:1 syrup) in late December. In 2017 I’ll use the vaporisation method as it has been found to have higher efficacy.
2016 had one final lesson for me in the form of robbing: it was unbelievable and on a frenzied scale that I’d not seen before. I had to put in some serious detective work to find out who the robbing bees were. Late one night I closed up all my hives and came back to my apiary the next morning to find it full of bees trying to rob the closed hives. So the robbers must have been someone else’s bees, from another apiary! I learned how to make robbing screens which helped a lot and everything calmed down, although damage had been done to a few smaller colonies.
Lesson five: prevent robbing before it happens – fit robbing screens before autumn feeding and carefully following guidelines around feeding e.g. feed all colonies at the same time, feed at night, don’t spill syrup etc.!
In the end I came out of 2016 with 10 strong colonies and four large nucs. While 2016 didn’t go according to plan, I learned a lot and became much more confident in handling and clipping queens.
And while it wasn’t the easiest of beekeeping years, I still enjoyed those magical moments when you are working with the bees and you think “How amazing are these creatures, and how lucky am I to be working with them.”
I hope your bees are overwintering well and that the season to come will be a good one for us all.
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Welcome to our very first podcast, We’re two beekeepers based in South London, we don’t claim to be experts so this isn’t the place for you if you’re looking for beekeeping gurus. However; if you enjoy hearing people chatting about bees this is the podcast for you.
00:00 – 02:00 – Introduction
02:00 – 04:00 – Paul’s 2016 season in review
04:00 – 14:00 – Experience with foundationless frames
14:00 – 19:00 – First try at Queen raising
19:00 – 22:00 – Tracy’s 2016 season in review
22:00 – 27:00 – Trouble with buying in Nucs
27:00 – 34:00 – Robbing & making robbing screens
36:00 – 38:00 – Adventures with entrance blocks
38:00 – 45:00 – Polynuc the beekeeping Swiss Army Knife
45:00 –56:00 – Feeding hives during the winter
56:00 -60:00 – Plans for next year
Links to things we talked about
Tiger Hall Bees – http://www.tigerhallbees.co.uk/
National Bee Unit -http://www.nationalbeeunit.com/
Queen right method of rearing – http://www.nationalbeeunit.com/index.cfm?pageId=278
Lyson mating nucs – http://tomaszlyson.co.uk/polystyrene-beehives/2777-mini-ul-niemalowany-bez-ramek.html
My bees are tucked up in their sad looked winter hives so it is a good time to ponder how my season has gone. Without a doubt 2016 has been my best year bee wrangling.
It has been a year of noes:
- no swarms
- no stings in the face
- almost no varroa
- erm ….. no honey
This year I set myself a few goals: to raise my own queens, build a new apiary and start using foundationless frames.
Queen raising has always the area of beekeeping I’ve been most confused by. I’ve attended many courses on but left few with any real sense of a method I could use. Often these courses try to cover as many different methods of making queens as possible, leaving me with a great sense of how other people cloud do it, but not with the skills to actually try it myself.
However; this year I did some research and found a wonderful weekend course run by Tiger Hall Beekeeping which taught the National Bee Unit method of Queen rearing. Over the weekend of the course I gained the skills to: graft, set up a hive for cell building and use mating nucs.
I learned two things raising bees in my apiary once I got home. I probably used way too many bees from my production hives; hence the lack of honey. And, to my shame, mating nucs can starve very quickly. Taking these lessons into next season I’m looking forward to developing my technique – Queen rearing is jolly good fun.
I also moved my apiary this year and finally started using foundationless frames. I’d been keen on going foundationless since I attended a talk given by Liz Knee who keeps all her bees in supers using the ROSE hive method. Apart from one or two messy frames I found running foundationless great fun. A good guide to the technique can be found here.
My goals for next year are rather modest:
- Raise more queens and over-winter six to eight nucs with them.
- Make some honey
I hope you have a good year and all your schemes and planning for the following season are successful.